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Inclusion Engineering and Grain Size Control of Steels - INGROS

  • Publisert 28.02.2004
  • Sist oppdatert 07.06.2011

Frontpage report

The aim of the INGROS project was to establish the required basis for a formal collaboration between the Norwegian Ferroalloy industry and the steel industry in Sweden and Finland.


The overall objectives of INGROS were:

  • To develop new grain refiners for low alloy structural steels.

  • To develop new grain refiners for bearing steels and high-alloyed stainless steels.

  • To establish a Nordic network between the ferroalloy industry in Norway and the steel industry in Sweden and Finland. Included in the network are also the five Nordic academic institutions SINTEF, NTNU, KTH, UO and HUT.


Obtained results in relation to the goals:


The first two goals, were fulfilled in the lab-scale experiments. Examples of the effect of the developed grain refiners on the microstructure of steels are shown in Figure 1 below. In Figure 1a and b, the effect on the solidification structure of stainless steels is demonstrated. In Figure 1c, it is demonstrated, that the grainrefiner facilitates the formation of inclusions that can nucleate ferrite. 


The scientific results of the project have been published in reports, on international conferences and on national seminars/workshops. The amount of scientific data which has been obtained in the experimental work for the INGROS project but which has not yet been published is so substantial that it will most likely result in several scientific publications during the coming years.

Figure 1. Examples of grain refinement

Figure 1. Examples of grain refinement: a) stainless steel without grain refiner, b) stainless steel with grain refiner, c) low alloyed steel with grain refiner.

Intensified the exchange of ideas
The third goal was the establishment of a Nordic network. The project has definitely intensified the exchange of ideas between the Norwegian ferroalloy producer (Elkem) and the Swedish (Sandvik and Ovako) and Finnish (Rautaruukki and Fundia) steel producers/ferroalloy consumers. It also improved the relation between the academic environments in the Nordic countries. 

Interest from European steel producers
The activities in the INGROS project attracted the interest of other European steel producers. During 2003, the Anglo-Dutch steel producer Corus joined the INGROS consortium. The project has resulted in an increased interest in the development of advanced ferroalloys. The coming five years, the Norwegian Research Council will support a project, called DISvaDRI, which aims at the development of such alloys. 

Proposal to the European Research Fund for Coal and Steel 
In addition, a proposal on grain refinement of steels has been sent to the European Research Fund for Coal and Steel (formerly ECSC). The participants in this project proposal include three of the partners from the INGROS project and three new partners: IRSID(France), CRM(Belgium) and Comdicast(Sweden). These companies have shown their interest in the scientific work done in the INGROS project and want to take part in further development.

Project duration: 01.01.2001 - 31.12.2003

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